ESNext: JavaScript “Optional Chaining Operator”

UPDATE February 2018: The proposed operator got renamed from “Null Propagation Operator” to “Optional Chaining Operator”. This post has been updated to reflect this name-change.

UPDATE December 2019: This feature has now advanced to Stage-4 and will be part of the ES2020 Specification! 🎉

Earlier today I was delighted to see that the “Optional Chaining Operator” in JavaScript has entered stage-1. This little gem – which I know from Coffeescript – is a real timesaver, and is something I’ve been looking forward to.

💁‍♂️ Stage-1?

The Technical Committee which is concerned with the standardization of ECMAScript (i.e. TC39) has a 5 stage process in place, ranging from stage-0 to stage-4, by which it develops a new language feature.

Stage-1 is the Proposal stage. It signals that the committee is showing interest in the proposal and that it is seeking further investigation on how to tackle it. At this stage the proposal is subject to heavy changes. It is only when a proposal reaches Stage 4 that it is ready to become part of the ECMAScript Specification.

The problem

Let’s start at the beginning. Say we have this simple Object named message:

const message = {
  body: {
    user: {
      firstName: 'Bramus',
      lastName: 'Van Damme',

To access the firstName property of that object, we can use this snippet right here:

const firstName = message.body.user.firstName;

However, this isn’t really safe: if message.body.user were not to exist, we’d get a JavaScript error:

const thisWillFail = message.body.inexistent.firstName;
// --> "Cannot read property 'firstName' of undefined"

Uh oh!

The hacky workaround

To fix this we – at this moment – can reside to Short-Circuit Evaluation:

const firstName = message.body && message.body.user && message.body.user.firstName;

Shouldn’t that return true?

💁‍♂️ The reason that this works it because of JavaScript returning the last encountered value – and not a boolean – when using Short-Circuit Logic.

To include a default fallback value, we can add some more Short-Circuit Logic, using the || operator:

const firstName = (message.body && message.body.user && message.body.user.firstName) || 'Stranger';

If the expression to the left of the || operator were to evaluate to something falsy (e.g. null, undefined, false, 0, empty string, …), the value to the right will be used.

Alternatively one could also use something like this:

const firstName = (((message || {}).body || {}).user || {}).firstName || 'Stranger';

(… Yeah, I know!?)

The proper solution

Now enter the “Optional Chaining Operator” ?. which provides us with a very elegant syntax and fail-safe approach to the issue described above:

const firstName = message.body?.user?.firstName || 'Stranger';

Whenever the expression to the left of the ?. operator evaluates to either null or undefined the whole expression it belongs to will evaluate to undefined, thus falling back to the default defined using the ||:

const firstName = message.body?.inexistent?.firstName || 'Stranger';

In the example above message.body?.inexistent evaluates to undefined. Therefore the entire message.body?.inexistent?.firstName expression will be considered to be undefined.

As a result the interpreter will then evaluate const firstName = undefined || 'Stranger';, to finally return 'Stranger' as the value for firstName.

Here’s to hoping that this one reaches stage-4 any time soon. As far as I can tell this is not in Babel (yet) the Babel folks are working on it.

ECMAScript Proposal: Optional Chaining →

💻 The examples embedded in this post are part of a talk on ESNext named “What’s next
 for JavaScript?”, which I gave at a Fronteers België meetup and Frontend United 2018 (Utrecht). You can check the slides / a recording out here. I’m available for bringing this talk at your meetup/conference.

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Published by Bramus!

Bramus is a frontend web developer from Belgium, working as a Chrome Developer Relations Engineer at Google. From the moment he discovered view-source at the age of 14 (way back in 1997), he fell in love with the web and has been tinkering with it ever since (more …)

Unless noted otherwise, the contents of this post are licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License and code samples are licensed under the MIT License

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  1. Meanwhile the php can do

    const firstname = message.body.user.firstname ?? ‘default‘;

    (it’s php functionalty written in js format)

  2. Uhm that would still not work you if your chain failed to deliver you a user object. This is about chaining and not about simple null coalesce operators.

  3. Better could be notation like this:

    const firstName = &message.body.user.firstName || ‘Stranger’

    It is not very safe to guard each field of the chain. What if you forget some “?”

    Or may be allow some like this construction

    const firstName = try{message.body.user.firstName}.catch(‘Stranger’)

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